What solubilizers can be used to increase the solubility of hydroxytyrosol?
To increase the solubility of hydroxytyrosol, various solubilizers or solubility-enhancing agents can be used.
Adding cosolvents such as ethanol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol (PEG), or glycerol can enhance the solubility of hydroxytyrosol.These cosolvents can disrupt intermolecular interactions and increase the solubility of hydroxytyrosol in both aqueous and non-aqueous systems.
Surfactants, including nonionic, anionic, or cationic surfactants, can effectively enhance the solubility of hydroxytyrosol.They work by reducing interfacial tension and promoting the formation of micelles or emulsions.Examples of surfactants that can be used include polysorbates (Tween series), sodium lauryl sulfate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB).
Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophobic cavity that can encapsulate hydroxytyrosol molecules, improving their solubility.Commonly used cyclodextrins include beta-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, and randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrin.
Combination of solvents or co-solvent systems can be employed to increase the solubility of hydroxytyrosol.For example, a mixture of water and ethanol or propylene glycol can be used as a co-solvent system to enhance solubility.
Complexing agents, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, or EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), can form complexes with hydroxytyrosol, improving its solubility.
The choice of solubilizer depends on the specific application and the compatibility of the solubilizer with hydroxytyrosol. We conduct solubility studies and evaluating the stability and efficacy of the solubilized hydroxytyrosol under the desired conditions is recommended.